理论物理:什么是引力彩虹理论?What is RAINBOW GRAVITY THEORY?

| 2020年4月16日




Rainbow gravity (or “gravity’s rainbow”) is a theory that different wavelengths of light experience different gravity levels and are separated in the same way that a prism splits white light into the rainbow. This phenomenon would be imperceptible in areas of relatively low gravity, such as Earth, but would be significant in areas of extremely high gravity, such as a black hole. As such the theory claims to disprove that the universe has a beginning or Big Bang, as the big bang theory calls for all wavelengths of light to be impacted by gravity to the same extent. The theory was first proposed in 2003 by physicists Lee Smolin and Joao Magueijo, and claims to bridge the gap between general relativity and quantum mechanics. Scientists are currently attempting to detect rainbow gravity using the Large Hadron Collider.

彩虹引力(或“引力的彩虹”)是一种理论,即不同波长的光会经历不同的引力水平,并且以与棱镜将白光分成彩虹的相同方式分开。 这种现象在重力较低的区域(例如地球)是无法察觉的,但在重力非常高的区域(例如黑洞)则非常明显。 因此,该理论声称不能证明宇宙有一个开始或大爆炸,因为大爆炸理论要求所有波长的光都受到重力的影响。 该理论最早由物理学家李·斯莫林(Lee Smolin)和乔奥·马格乔(Joao Magueijo)于2003年提出,声称弥合了广义相对论与量子力学之间的鸿沟。 科学家目前正在尝试使用大型强子对撞机检测彩虹引力。

Rainbow gravity theory’s origin is largely the product of the disparity between general relativity and quantum mechanics. More specifically, “locality,” or the concept of cause and effect that drives the principles of general relativity, is mathematically irreconcilable with quantum mechanics. This issue is due to incompatible functions between the two fields; in particular, the fields apply radically different mathematical approaches in describing the concept of curvature in four-dimensional space-time. Historically, this mathematical split begins with the disparity between Einstein’s theories of relativity, which saw physics through the lens of causality, and classical physics, which interpreted the structure of space-time to be random and inherent.

彩虹引力理论的起源很大程度上是广义相对论与量子力学之间差距的产物。 更具体地说,“局部性”或驱动广义相对论原理的因果关系在数学上与量子力学不相容。 此问题是由于两个字段之间的功能不兼容所致。 特别是,这些领域在描述四维时空曲率的概念时采用了截然不同的数学方法。 从历史上看,这种数学上的分歧始于爱因斯坦的相对论和经典物理学之间的差异,后者是通过因果关系的视角看待物理学,而经典物理学则将时空的结构解释为是随机的和固有的。

The prevailing notion about cosmic change is that the universe is expanding at a constantly accelerating rate; moreover, it is understood that as one traces the universe’s history backwards one finds that it was, at one point, far denser. If true, the Rainbow gravity theory prohibits a singularity such as that which is postulated in the Big Bang. This indicates that, when viewed in reverse, the universe slowly approaches a point of terminal density without ever reaching it, implying that the universe does not possess a point of origin.

关于宇宙变化的普遍观念是宇宙以不断加速的速度膨胀。 此外,可以理解的是,当人们追溯宇宙的历史时,就会发现它在某一点上更加密集。 如果为真,则Rainbow引力理论禁止像Big Bang中所假定的那样的奇异性。 这表明,从相反方向看,宇宙缓慢地到达了终极密度点而从未到达终极点,这表明宇宙不具有原点。

There are stringent constraints on energy-dependent speed-of-light scenarios. Based on these, Sabine Hossenfelder has strongly criticised the rainbow gravity concept, stating that “It is neither a theory nor a model, it is just an idea that, despite more than a decade of work, never developed into a proper model. Rainbow gravity has not been shown to be compatible with the standard model. There is no known quantization of this approach and one cannot describe interactions in this framework at all. Moreover, it is known to lead to non-localities which are ruled out already. For what I am concerned, no papers should get published on the topic until these issues have been resolved.”

在能量依赖型光速场景中有严格的限制。 基于这些,萨宾·霍森菲尔德(Sabine Hossenfelder)强烈批评了彩虹引力的概念,他说:“它既不是理论也不是模型,它只是一个想法,尽管经过十多年的努力,但从未发展成为合适的模型。 尚未显示出与标准模型兼容的信息;没有已知的量化方法,并且根本无法描述此框架中的相互作用;而且,已知会导致已经排除的非局部性。 我担心,在解决这些问题之前,不应发表任何有关该主题的论文。”

The Rainbow Gravity Theory! (Theory Thursday Ep.1)


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