转载自:Getting Started with Kinect and Processing | Daniel Shiffman


Getting Started with Kinect and Processing

Kinect and Processing

The Microsoft Kinect sensor is a peripheral device (designed for XBox and windows PCs) that functions much like a webcam. However, in addition to providing an RGB image, it also provides a depth map. Meaning for every pixel seen by the sensor, the Kinect measures distance from the sensor. This makes a variety of computer vision problems like background removal, blob detection, and more easy and fun!

The Kinect sensor itself only measures color and depth. However, once that information is on your computer, lots more can be done like “skeleton” tracking (i.e. detecting a model of a person and tracking his/her movements). To do skeleton tracking you’ll need to use Thomas Lengling’s windows-only Kinect v2 processing libray. However, if you’re on a Mac and all you want is raw data from the Kinect, you are in luck! This library uses libfreenect and libfreenect2 open source drivers to access that data for Mac OS X (windows support coming soon).

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按照这个教程,我用大疆mini2制作了我所住小区的3D模型。

之前没做过无人机建模,这次做模型是想学习一下,就以本小区进行了练手。

我按照网上的这个视频教程进行了制作。教程链接:四分钟学会无人机实景建模,无人机通用3D实景建模教程 – 西瓜视频 (ixigua.com)


为了更好的控制飞机,我到小区楼顶进行了拍摄。我的大概飞行轨迹如下:

一共拍摄了520张照片。

打开ContextCapture Center Master,加载照片,按照教程制作。由于要计算几百张照片的各种信息,制作很花时间。

经过两个小时的计算,最终出现了成品。

从成品图中可以看到天空中白色的小点。每一个小点都是一张照片的拍摄位置。

视频展示

百度百科的简介

TouchDesigner 是一个可视化编程的开发平台,可以创建实时的视觉及新媒体创作,主要用于实时交互新媒体创作。其应用场景包括:创建可互动的新媒体系统、建筑投影、VJ,还是快速的制作创意原型等等。
因为其提供一种基于节点式的可视化编程环境。不用敲代码,通过创建节点并且连线,就可以创作出视觉出彩的作品。
TouchDesigner 功能元件主要分为6大类:COMP, TOP, CHOP, SOP, DAT, MAT,对于不同方向的运用。比如TOP内的控制器主要用于处理图像及影像,而SOP内的控制器主要用于3D的处理。
TouchDesigner 现支持 Windows、Mac OS 两种系统。


两个主要网站

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领先的沉浸式互联网内容门户,一站式学习、创作和展示。沉浸式互联网体验和学习门户 – 踏得网 (techbrood.com)
可以在线编辑场景,实时渲染,非常流畅好用。这个特别适合制作虚拟仿真实验。


带有网页版3D编辑器,非常流畅。Stone – 网页3D在线编辑器,快速构建和分享沉浸式展示 1.0.1 (techbrood.com)


案例欣赏:

动态草地:

水池:

官网:Digital worlds that feel human | Ultraleap

面对开发人员的网页:Leap Motion Developer

对比:Tracking | Ultraleap Stereo IR 170 Evaluation Kit | Ultraleap

Stereo IR 170 Camera Module 开发板
Stereo IR 170 Camera Module 开发板

 

开发板与 leap motion 的功能对比
开发板与 leap motion 的功能对比

 

Halbach array 的构建与模拟(二)

知乎上找到了一个系列文章——《Halbach array 的构建与模拟》,一共写了三篇,链接分别如下:

  1. Halbach array 的构建与模拟(一) – 知乎 (zhihu.com)
  2. Halbach array 的构建与模拟(二) – 知乎 (zhihu.com)
  3. Halbach array 的构建与模拟(终极版) – 知乎 (zhihu.com)

以下是全文转载。

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专利详情网址:US7757609B2 – Track switching for a magnetically levitated transportation system and method – Google Patents

Track switching for a magnetically levitated transportation system and method

Abstract
A magnetically levitated transportation system employs permanent magnet rails along a guideway that interact with permanent magnets on a vehicle. The rails are optimized to reduce magnetic mass and cost of materials, while maximizing lift force. The vehicle is stabilized in the lateral and yaw directions with feedback controlled lateral control coils that interact with the permanent magnet rails on the guideway. A track switching structure employs permanent magnet rails that gradually widen along a segment of track and separate into two identical diverging rails. Feedback controlled lateral control coils in a moving vehicle stabilize that vehicle over one or the other pairs of diverging rails, as directed by a control computer, thereby causing the vehicle to continue along one path or the other, with no moving or active elements required in the track.

Images (11)

Classifications
 B60L13/003 Crossings; Points
File:Linear Halbach Array (Weak side up).png

 

File:Linear Halbach Array (Weak side up).png

百度百科:Halbach Array一般指海尔贝克阵列,见 海尔贝克阵列_百度百科 (baidu.com)

海尔贝克阵列(Halbach Array)是一种磁体结构,是工程上的近似理想结构,目标是用最少量的磁体产生最强的磁场。1979 年,美国学者Klaus Halbach做电子加速实验时,发现了这种特殊的永磁铁结构,并逐步完善这种结构,最终形成了所谓的“Halbach”磁铁。


维基百科:Halbach array – Wikipedia

Halbach array is a special arrangement of permanent magnets that augments the magnetic field on one side of the array while cancelling the field to near zero on the other side.[1][2] This is achieved by having a spatially rotating pattern of magnetisation.

The rotating pattern of permanent magnets (on the front face; on the left, up, right, down) can be continued indefinitely and have the same effect. The effect of this arrangement is roughly similar to many horseshoe magnets placed adjacent to each other, with similar poles touching.

The principle was first invented by James (Jim) M. Winey of Magnepan in 1970, for the ideal case of continuously rotating magnetization, induced by a one-sided stripe-shaped coil.[3]

The effect was also discovered by John C. Mallinson in 1973, and these “one-sided flux” structures were initially described by him as a “curiosity”, although at the time he recognized from this discovery the potential for significant improvements in magnetic tape technology.[4]

Physicist Klaus Halbach, while at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory during the 1980s, independently invented the Halbach array to focus particle accelerator beams.[5]

Applications[edit]

The advantages of one-sided flux distributions are twofold:

  • The field is twice as large on the side on which the flux is confined (in the idealized case).
  • There is no stray field produced (in the ideal case) on the opposite side. This helps with field confinement, usually a problem in the design of magnetic structures.

Although one-sided flux distributions may seem somewhat abstract, they have a surprising number of applications ranging from the refrigerator magnet through industrial applications such as the brushless DC motorvoice coils,[7] magnetic drug targeting[8] to high-tech applications such as wiggler magnets used in particle accelerators and free-electron lasers.

This device is also a key component of the Inductrack Maglev train[9] and Inductrack rocket-launch system,[10] wherein the Halbach array repels loops of wire that form the track after the train has been accelerated to a speed able to lift.

The simplest example of a one-sided flux magnet is a refrigerator magnet. These are usually composed of powdered ferrite in a binder such as plastic or rubber. The extruded magnet is exposed to a rotating field giving the ferrite particles in the magnetic compound a magnetization resulting in a one-sided flux distribution. This distribution increases the holding force of the magnet when placed on a permeable surface, compared to the holding force from, say, a uniform magnetization of the magnetic compound.

Scaling up this design and adding a top sheet gives a wiggler magnet, used in synchrotrons and free-electron lasers. Wiggler magnets wiggle, or oscillate, an electron beam perpendicular to the magnetic field. As the electrons are undergoing acceleration, they radiate electromagnetic energy in their flight direction, and as they interact with the light already emitted, photons along its line are emitted in phase, resulting in a “laser-like” monochromatic and coherent beam.

The design shown above is usually known as a Halbach wiggler. The magnetization vectors in the magnetized sheets rotate in the opposite senses to each other; above, the top sheet\\’s magnetization vector rotates clockwise, and the bottom sheet\\’s magnetization vector rotates counter-clockwise. This design is chosen so that the x components of the magnetic fields from the sheets cancel, and the y components reinforce, so that the field is given by

where k is the wavenumber of the magnetic sheet given by the spacing between magnetic blocks with the same magnetization vector.

These cylindrical structures are used in devices such as brushless AC motors, magnetic couplings and high-field cylinders. Both brushless motors and coupling devices use multipole field arrangements:

  • Brushless motors typically use cylindrical designs in which all the flux is confined to the centre of the bore (such as k = 4 above, a 6-pole rotor) with the AC coils also contained within the bore. Such self-shielding motors designs are more efficient and produce higher torque than conventional motor designs.
  • Magnetic-coupling devices transmit torque through magnetically transparent barriers (that is, the barrier is non-magnetic or is magnetic but not affected by an applied magnetic field), for instance, between sealed containers or pressurised vessels. The optimal torque couplings consists of a pair of coaxially nested cylinders with opposite k and −k flux magnetization patterns, as this configuration is the only system for infinitely long cylinders that produces a torque.[14] In the lowest-energy state, the outer flux of the inner cylinder exactly matches the internal flux of the outer cylinder. Rotating one cylinder relative to the other from this state results in a restoring torque.

Halbach array.svg

 


海尔贝克阵列(Halbach Array)_上海骏材_新浪博客 (sina.com.cn)

海尔贝克阵列(Halbach <wbr>Array)

Klaus Halbach(左)在探讨永磁阵列模型。

海尔贝克阵列(Halbach <wbr>Array) 海尔贝克阵列有哪些形式?海尔贝克阵列(Halbach <wbr>Array)
直线阵列
海尔贝克阵列(Halbach <wbr>Array)
海尔贝克阵列(Halbach <wbr>Array)
海尔贝克阵列(Halbach <wbr>Array)
海尔贝克阵列(Halbach <wbr>Array)

圆环阵列

海尔贝克阵列(Halbach <wbr>Array)海尔贝克阵列(Halbach <wbr>Array)

海尔贝克阵列(Halbach <wbr>Array)海尔贝克阵列(Halbach <wbr>Array)

海尔贝克阵列(Halbach <wbr>Array)海尔贝克阵列(Halbach <wbr>Array)


海尔贝克阵列 Halbach Array_磁体 (sohu.com)

海尔贝克阵列的形式与应用

  • 直线阵列

直线型是最基础的Halbach阵列组成形式,这种阵列磁体可视为一种径向阵列与切向阵列的结合,如下图。

直线型Halbach阵列目前主要应用于直线电机。磁悬浮列车的悬浮原理是运动磁体和它在导体中感应电流产生的磁场相互作用产生悬浮力,同时伴有磁阻力,提高浮力与阻力比是改善悬浮系统性能的关键,这就要求车载磁体重量轻、磁场强、磁场均匀、可靠性高。采用Halbach阵列水平安装在车体中央,与轨道中央的绕组作用产生推进力,以较少的磁体用量达到磁场最大化,而另一侧磁场较少,可以乘客避免暴露在强磁场之中。

  • 环形阵列

环形Halbach阵列可视为将直线型Halbach阵列首尾相接组合而形成圆环形状。

在永磁电机中,使用Halbach阵列结构的永磁电机较传统永磁电机具有更接近正弦分布的气隙磁场,在永磁材料用量相同的情况下,Halbach永磁电机气隙磁密度更大,铁损较小。此外Halbach圆环阵列还广泛应用于永磁轴承、磁制冷设备和磁共振等设备中。

海尔贝克阵列的制作和生产方法

方法1:根据阵列的拓扑结构,使用磁体胶将预先已充磁的磁体段粘连在一起,因各磁体段之间的互斥力很强,所以在粘连的时候要使用模具进行夹紧。该方法制造效率较低,但较容易实现,比较适合实验室研究阶段使用。

方法2:首先利用充模或压模的方法制造一个完整的磁体,然后在一个特制的夹具中进行充磁,采用该方法加工出的阵列结构和下图类似,这种方法加工效率高,比较容易实现批量化生产。但需要专门设计充磁夹具和制定充磁工艺。

方法3:利用特定形状的绕组阵列来实现Halbach型磁场分布,如下图。